دو فصلنامه علمی جامعه شناسی آموزش و پرورش

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی (کمی)

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه برنامه ریزی درسی، واحد رودهن، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه برنامه ریزی درسی، واحد رودهن، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

10.22034/ijes.2023.1983206.1368

چکیده

هدف: کیفیت برنامه‌درسی نقش مهمی در موفقیت و عملکرد تحصیلی دارد. در نتیجه، هدف این مطالعه بررسی وضعیت مولفه‌های ارزشیابی کیفیت برنامه‌درسی در مدارس ابتدایی شهر تهران بود.
 
 
روش: این مطالعه از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر روش اجرا آمیخته (کیفی-کمی) بود. جامعه بخش کیفی خبرگان و اساتید برنامه‌درسی شهر تهران بودند که طبق اصل اشباع نظری تعداد 12 نفر از آنها با روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند انتخاب شدند. جامعه بخش کمی معلمان زن و مرد مدارس ابتدایی دولتی شهر تهران در سال تحصیلی 1401-1400 به تعداد 23593 نفر بودند که طبق جدول کرجسی و مورگان تعداد 377 نفر از آنها با روش نمونه‌گیری خوشه‌ای انتخاب شدند. ابزارهای پژوهش مصاحبه نیمه‌ساختاریافته و پرسشنامه محقق‌ساخته بودند که روایی مصاحبه‌ها با روش مثلث‌سازی تایید و پایایی آن با روش ضریب توافق بین دو کدگذار 83/0 محاسبه شد و روایی صوری پرسشنامه با نظر خبرگان تایید و پایایی آن با روش آلفای کرونباخ 85/0 محاسبه شد. داده‌ها با روش‌های کدگذاری باز، محوری و انتخابی در نرم‌افزار MAXQDA و آزمون تی یک نمونه‌ای در نرم‌افزار SPSS تحلیل شدند.
 
 
یافته ها: یافته‌ها نشان داد که ارزشیابی کیفیت برنامه‌درسی در مدارس ابتدایی دارای 108 شاخص در 23 مولفه و 6 بعد شامل رویکرد سیستمی ارزشیابی کیفیت برنامه‌درسی (با 4 مولفه تفکر راهبردی، تعمیم‌پذیری اهداف، دریافت بازخورد اصلاحی و تسهیل فرآیند یاددهی و یادگیری)، ارزشیابی کیفی فعالیت‌ها (با 3 مولفه ارزشیابی فعالیت‌های انگیزشی، ارزشیابی فعالیت‌های کاربردی و ارزشیابی فعالیت‌های برنامه‌درسی)، کیفیت‌بخشی امکانات و فناوری‌های نوین (با 3 مولفه امکانات فرهنگی و ورزشی، امکانات آموزشی و امکانات رفاهی)، کیفیت‌بخشی عوامل ساختاری (با 4 مولفه کمبود منابع و توزیع نامناسب، آینده‌نگری ضعیف، ارتباطات فردی و سازمانی و عدم انضباط کاری)، کیفیت‌سنجی اصول برنامه‌درسی (با 4 مولفه انعطاف‌پذیری، توالی برنامه‌درسی، سودمندی برنامه‌درسی و جامعیت برنامه‌درسی) و کیفیت‌سنجی مدیریت استراتژیک برنامه‌درسی (با 5 مولفه بهبود ظواهر برنامه‌درسی، بهبود محتوای برنامه‌درسی، انسجام برنامه‌درسی، ترسیم چشم‌انداز و رشد هویت ملی- مذهبی) بود. همچنین، مولفه‌های تفکر راهبردی، تعمیم‌پذیری اهداف، تسهیل فرآیند یاددهی و یادگیری، ارزشیابی فعالیت‌های انگیزشی، ارزشیابی فعالیت‌های کاربردی و ارزشیابی فعالیت‌های برنامه‌درسی، امکانات فرهنگی و ورزشی، امکانات آموزشی، امکانات رفاهی، کمبود منابع و توزیع نامناسب، آینده‌نگری ضعیف، ارتباطات فردی و سازمانی، انعطاف‌پذیری، توالی برنامه‌درسی، سودمندی برنامه‌درسی، بهبود ظواهر برنامه‌درسی، بهبود محتوای برنامه‌درسی، انسجام برنامه‌درسی، ترسیم چشم‌انداز و رشد هویت ملی- مذهبی در وضعیت مطلوب قرار داشتند، اما مولفه‌های دریافت بازخورد اصلاحی، عدم انضباط کاری و جامعیت برنامه‌درسی در وضعیت نامطلوب قرار داشتند (P<0.001).
 
 
نتیجه گیری: نتایج این مطالعه برای متخصصان و برنامه‌ریزان آموزش‌وپرورش تلویحات کاربردی بسیاری دارد و آنان بر اساس نتایج این مطالعه می‌توانند گام موثری در راستای بهبود مولفه‌های ارزشیابی کیفیت برنامه‌درسی و به‌ویژه سه مولفه دریافت بازخورد اصلاحی، عدم انضباط کاری و جامعیت برنامه‌درسی بردارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Status of Evaluation Components of Curriculum Quality in the Elementary Schools of Tehran City

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahnaz Parmoz 1
  • Afsaneh Saber Garakani 2
  • Fariba Hanifi 2

1 PhD student, Department of Curriculum Planning, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Curriculum Planning, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran (Corresponding Author).

چکیده [English]

Purpose: Curriculum quality plays an important role in academic success and performance. As a result, the aim of this study was investigating the status of evaluation components of curriculum quality in the elementary schools in Tehran city.
 
 
Methodology: This study in terms of purpose was applied and in terms of implementation method was mixed (qualitative-quantitative). The population of the qualitative section was the curriculum experts and professors of Tehran city, which according to the principle of theoretical saturation number of 12 people of them were selected by purposive sampling method. The population of the quantitative section was male and female teachers of public elementary schools of Tehran city in the 2021-2022 academic years with number 23593 people, which according to the Krejcie and Morgan table number of 377 people of them were selected by cluster sampling method. The research tools were semi-structured interviews and researcher-made questionnaires, which validity of the interviews was confirmed by triangulation method and its reliability was calculated by the coefficient of agreement between two coders 0.83, and the face validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the opinion of experts and its reliability was calculated by Cronbach's alpha method 0.85. Data were analyzed with open, axial and selective coding methods in MAXQDA software and one-sample t-test in SPSS software.
 
 
Findings: The findings showed that evaluation of curriculum quality in the elementary schools has 108 indicators in 23 components and 6 dimensions were included systematic approach of evaluation of curriculum quality (with 4 components of strategic thinking, generalizability of goals, receiving corrective feedback and facilitating the teaching and learning process), qualitative evaluation of activities ( with 3 components of evaluation of motivational activities, evaluation of practical activities and evaluation of curriculum activities), quality of modern facilities and technologies (with 3 components of cultural and sports facilities, educational facilities and welfare facilities), quality of structural factors (with 4 components of lack of resources and inappropriate distribution, weak foresight, individual and organizational communication and lack of work discipline), quality assessment of curriculum principles (with 4 components of flexibility, curriculum sequence, curriculum usefulness and curriculum comprehensiveness) and quality assessment of curriculum strategic management (with 5 components of improving the appearance of the curriculum, improving the content of the curriculum, coherence of the curriculum, drawing the vision and growth of national-religious identity). Also, the components of strategic thinking, generalizability of goals, facilitating the teaching and learning process, evaluation of motivational activities, evaluation of practical activities and evaluation of curriculum activities, cultural and sports facilities, educational facilities, welfare facilities, lack of resources and inappropriate distribution, weak foresight, individual and organizational communication, flexibility, curriculum sequence, curriculum usefulness, improving the appearance of the curriculum, improving the content of the curriculum, coherence of the curriculum, drawing the vision and growth of national-religious identity were in favorable situation, but the components of receiving corrective feedback, lack of work discipline and curriculum comprehensiveness were in an unfavorable situation (P<0.001).
 
Conclusion: The results of this study have many practical implications for education specialists and planners, and they based on the results of this study, can take an effective step towards improving the evaluation components of curriculum quality, especially the three components of receiving corrective feedback, lack of work discipline and curriculum comprehensiveness.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Evaluation
  • Curriculum
  • Curriculum Quality
  • Elementary Schools
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