مطالعه قوم نگارانه فرهنگ‌ سازمانی مدرسه بر اساس دیدگاه شاین: مطالعه موردی دو مدرسه ابتدایی شهر مشهد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشنسای ارشد گروه مدیریت آموزشی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه مدیریت آموزشی و توسعه منابع انسانی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه علوم اجتماعی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

هدف: هدف این پژوهش مطالعه قوم نگارانه فرهنگ‌ سازمانی دو مدرسه ابتدایی شهر مشهد بر اساس دیدگاه شاین بود.
روش‌شناسی: این مطالعه از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر شیوه اجرا  قوم‌نگاری با رویکرد کیفی بود. نمونه موردمطالعه را 15 نفر از مدیران، معاونان، معلمان و دانش­آموزان در دو مدرسه ابتدایی  دخترانه و پسرانه در شهر مشهد در سال تحصیلی 99-1398 تشکیل دادند که به شیوه هدفمند و طبق اصل اشباع انتخاب شدند. کفایت حجم نمونه بر اساس اشباع نظری تعیین شد. جهت گردآوری داده‌ها از روش مشاهده‌ نیمه مشارکتی و مصاحبه نیمه­ساختاریافته و برای تحلیل داده‌ها از تکنیک کدگذاری در سه مرحله­ کدگذاری باز، محوری و گزینشی بهره گرفته شد. اعتبار نتایج بر اساس معیارهای چهارگانه گوبا و لینکن و با اطمینان از میزان «موثق بودن» داده‌ها و نیز کدگذاری و بازبینی توسط اعضای تیم پژوهش تأمین شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج حاکی از شناسایی و استخراج 37 مقوله گزینشی در سه سطح  الگوهای رفتاری (18 کد گزینشی)،  ارزش‌ها و هنجارها (12 کد گزینشی) و مفروضات بنیادین و باورها (7 کد گزینشی) بر اساس دیدگاه  شاین بود. از مجموع 436 کد باز، 227 کد در سطح الگوهای رفتاری، 121 کد در سطح ارزش­ها و باورها و 88 کد در سطح مفروضات بنیادین شناسایی شدند. از مجموع 88 کد محوری نیز 42 کد در سطح الگوهای رفتاری، 29 کد در سطح ارزش­ها و هنجارها، و 17 کد در سطح مفروضات بنیادین فرهنگ‌سازمانی استخراج شدند. از ویژگی‌های مهم فرهنگ سازمانی در سطح الگوهای رفتاری می‌توان به تعامل اجتماعی ضعیف میان اعضای مدرسه و رفتار نامناسب کادر مدرسه با دانش­آموزان و در سطح ارزش‌ها و هنجارها به همکاری، همدلی اجتماعی با والدین و انگیزش دانش­آموزان و در سطح مفروضات به تعاون و همکاری والدین و دانش­آموزان در امور مدرسه، نظارت و مدیریت رفتار انضباطی دانش­آموزان و کارکنان اشاره نمود.
 بحث و نتیجه‌گیری: نظر به غلبه ویژگی‌های فرهنگ سازمانی بوروکراتیک، رسمی و قیمی از نوع کنترلی به ویژه دوگانگی بین بوروکراسی و مشارکت طلبی ضروری است توجه ویژه‌ای به مقوله نرم  و چندلایه‌ای فرهنگ سازمانی مدرسه که رفتارهای آشکار اعضای مدرسه را به‌ویژه در امر آموزش و یادگیری تحت تأثیر قرار می‌دهد، در فرایند سیاست‌گذاری و تصمیم‌گیری آموزشی از سوی سیاست‌گذاران آموزشی به‌ویژه مدیران مدارس صورت گیرد.  

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